Omnidirectional videos, or 360° videos, have exploded in popularity due to the recent advances in virtual reality head-mounted displays (HMDs) and cameras. Despite the 360° field of regard (FoR), almost 90% of the pixels are outside a typical HMD's field of view (FoV). Hence, understanding where users are more likely to look at plays a vital role in efficiently streaming and rendering 360° videos. While conventional saliency models have shown robust performance over rectilinear images, they are not formulated to handle equatorial bias, horizontal clipping, and spherical rotations in 360° videos. In this paper, we present a novel GPU-driven pipeline for saliency computation and virtual cinematography in 360° videos using spherical harmonics (SH). By analyzing the spherical harmonics spectrum of the 360° video, we extract the spectral residual by accumulating the SH coefficients between a low band and a high band. Our model outperforms the classic Itti et al.'s model in timings by 5\times to 13\times in timing and runs at over 60 FPS for 4K videos. Further, our interactive computation of spherical saliency can be used for saliency-guided virtual cinematography in 360° videos. We formulate a spatiotemporal model to ensure large saliency coverage while reducing the camera movement jitter. Our pipeline can be used in processing, navigating, and streaming 360° videos in real time.
Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science Department., University of Maryland, College Park., 2018.
Keywords: social street view, geollery, spherical harmonics, 360 video, multiview video, montage4d, haptics, cryptography, metaverse, mirrored world
2022 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces (VR), 2022.
Keywords: 360 image, virtual reality, view synthesis, panorama, neural rendering, depth map, mesh rendering, inpainting, digital world
IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), 2021.
Keywords: 360° video, foveation, virtual reality, live video stream-ing, log-rectilinear, summed-area table, eye tracking, digital world
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CGA), 2021.
Keywords: spherical harmonics, virtual reality, visual saliency, 360°videos, omnidirectional videos, perception, Itti model, spectralresidual, GPGPU, CUDA, eye tracking, interactive graphics
ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D), 2018.
Keywords: spherical harmonics, virtual reality, visual saliency, 360°videos, omnidirectional videos, perception, Itti model, spectralresidual, GPGPU, CUDA
A Log-Rectilinear Transformation for Foveated 360-degree Video Streaming
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Saliency Computation for Virtual Cinematography in 360° Videos
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